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Assessing the Economic Effect of Perennial Flooding in Ghana –Kwabena Adu Koranteng Writes

The year has moved into its 4th month and in less than three weeks the country will reel into its raining season. The raining season in Ghana which commences from June to September every year; usually moves along with heavy floods which in effect creates lots of disasters.
Precious human lives and properties running into millions of USD have been lost through some major disasters caused by the perennial floods.

Ghana is susceptible to a range of natural disasters like floods, storms, and landslides. These events are often caused by a combination of factors, including climate change, deforestation, and poor urban planning. Floods are a frequent occurrence in Ghana, especially during the rainy
Season, which runs from May to September. We all recall what happened on 3rd June 2015 where we experienced the June 3rd rain fire disaster.
The capital city of Ghana, Accra, was hit by a flash flood that left over 200 people dead and
Destroyed around US$100 million worth of properties and assets. In the last 20 years, an estimated four hundred people have been killed and around four million people have been displaced by flooding

The worse flood-affected regions in Ghana include Greater Accra, Volta, Central,
Western, and Eastern Regions. In Sekondi-Takoradi, flooding is a major cause of homelessness loss of lives and livelihood are Common in Kumasi . In Accra, demand for residential housing exceeds supply, so construction in flood-prone areas have become common.

According to the World Bank, an estimated two million people in Accra are at risk of flooding. Flood induced losses can be tangible and/or intangible; intangible losses include physical, emotional, and mental health issues that people experience.
Assessment of flood impacts are often about property and infrastructure damages at the sub-national level.

Floods in Accra are usually caused by heavy rains that occur in June and July
The massive growth of Accra has increased the extent of impervious surfaces such as roads, rooftops, and sidewalks that prevent water infiltration and lead to increased discharge that overloads drainage channels; flaws in the drainage network such as undersized, unconnected, or improperly channeled drains contribute to the flooding problem Flash floods which result from localized storms are caused by events which are hard to predict using technology Flash floods are influenced by ‘urban heat island effect’; it refers to the phenomenon where urban areas
Experience higher temperatures compared to their surrounding rural areas due to the
Concentration of human activities and the built environment.

Furthermore, rapid population growth especially in urban areas has generated
Haphazard development which destroys the integrity of the landscape to accommodate large volumes of runoff to avert floods.
In general, the cause of floods in urban areas can be traced to three factors; excessive rainfall, increased imperviousness, and absence of drainage systems. Excessive or intense rainfall is considered a direct cause of floods especially in urban areas with impervious surfaces; often, drainage facilities do not have the capacity to accommodate the runoff, In fact, poor waste management, poor engineering of drains, development in flood plain or along waterways, the possible effect of climate change, lack of enforcement, haphazard or unplanned development, and low-lying nature of land are considered secondary or indirect causes of floods
Already, the Ghana Meteorological Agency has issued a weather forecast indicating heavy rains and thunderstorms this year.
The most flood prone locations in Accra include: Tse Addo,Weija ,Adabraka ,Amasaman ,Pokuasi Ofanko,Kwame Nkrumah Circle Industrial area, Dzorwulu, Kotobabi, Kaneshi, Kasua, Some part of East Legon Atico Bridge and Junction ,Abelemkpe, Abolo Junction, Airport residential area and Bawaleshie



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